Have you tried regular Safe Mode and/or "Last known good configuration' ? Both choices should be listed in the Safe Mode menu. Even if you have already tried, try again as sometimes it works after repeated attempts.
If you do manage to go back and things appear normal, temporarily disable System Restore to get rid of the infected restore point and then update Windows, including any parts you may have ignored in the past.
Also did that rescue disk suggestion on that link you gave help?